Techniche, IIT Guwahati
4 min readMay 23, 2023

In the recent scenario, the world is facing one of the most mammoth and devastating economic crises, known as the Recession.

A recession in layman’s terms is a period when the economy is doing badly. It means that businesses are not making as much money as they used to, people are losing their jobs, and everything costs more. It usually lasts for a while, and it can be hard for people to find work or make ends meet. Think of it like a big financial slowdown or a tough economic time for the country.

Economical definition of a recession is that a recession is a significant decline in economic activity, usually marked by a decrease in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more consecutive quarters. It is a natural part of the economic cycle and can have far-reaching effects on individuals, businesses, and even governments. In this blog, we’ll explore what a recession is, its causes, and its impact on various aspects of society.

What are the causes?

Recessions can have various causes, including:

1)Tight monetary policy: When central banks raise interest rates to combat inflation, it can lead to a decrease in consumer spending and investment, leading to a decline in economic activity.

2)Global economic shocks: Wars, natural disasters, pandemics, or other unexpected events can cause a sudden and significant decline in economic activity. For example, the Russia-Ukraine war creates an unusual hindrance to economic activities as they are on their way to reviving. Again there is a bad disruption in the supply chain in the global market creating unwanted economic holding or slowdown like crises.
Also, after the global impact of the covid-19, modern globalization is expected to have slowed down economic activity due to the undesirable disturbance in the supply chain in the market of the world. As it leads to a severe global recession for the big stakeholders in the world economy.

How it will impact the world?

Unemployment: A horrible impact is the mass layoffs and unemployment status. As many MNCs, tech-firm and different corporations are starting the job cut status as mass layoffs, it results in the overall increase in the unemployment status in a sector. All the big Tech-giants like Meta, Twitter, and Amazon are creating global impact during these tough testing times. Many organization has halted their hiring process till further relaxation in the trends. This leads to higher unemployment rates and lower consumer spending.

Reduced consumer spending: With job losses and economic uncertainty, consumers tend to spend less money, leading to a decrease in demand for goods and services.

Decreased investment: Businesses may postpone investment plans during a recession, leading to reduced capital expenditures, which can further slow down economic growth. All the big stakeholders of the world economies are suffering from the recession. In the current situation, America, UK, and Germany are the leading worst-affected stakeholders. Pakistan, Srilanka, and South Africa are expected to have the worst economic crisis in the upcoming time. As we are on the verge of globalization, India as the 5th largest economic stakeholder would also have the sure chance to suffer from this crisis. But, at present, India is doing quite well and taking precautionary measures to avoid the worst impact of the recession in the country.
Government revenue: A recession can have a significant impact on government revenue, as tax receipts decline due to reduced economic activity and increased spending on social safety net programs.

International trade: During a recession, international trade can be affected as countries reduce their imports and exports.

How we can manage it?

Governments and central banks can take various measures to manage a recession. Some of the common measures include:

Fiscal policy: Governments can use fiscal policy measures, such as increased government spending or tax cuts, to stimulate economic growth.

Monetary policy: Central banks can lower interest rates or increase the money supply to encourage lending and investment. Government should support the new-Tech based startups to have some business model scope for our market to the global supply chain.

International cooperation: International cooperation can help in managing the impact of a recession by coordinating monetary and fiscal policies across countries.

What could be the positive effects of the recession?

While recessions can be difficult and have adverse effects, they also present opportunities for innovation, restructuring, and long-term growth. During these periods, new industries may emerge, technological advancements may accelerate, and inefficient systems may be reevaluated and improved. Governments and institutions may implement reforms to prevent future crises and build a more robust and sustainable economy.

Ultimately, while recessions are undoubtedly challenging, they are not permanent. With appropriate measures, economic recoveries can occur, and lessons learned from recessions can contribute to stronger and more resilient economies in the future.



Techniche, IIT Guwahati

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